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Common Poisonous Berries in North America
The Yew Berry
The yew berry is a small, round and bright red berry that grows on a shrub that has what appears to be soft and thick pine needles. They look incredibly tempting as their hue can remind us of maraschino cherries and conjure images of a sweet snack. However, the yew berry contains a couple of chemicals that are very toxic to humans in modest doses. Numerous people have died from eating these deceptive little berries.
As few as three berries can cause symptoms that include nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, dizziness, dangerous changes in heart rate as well as severe abdominal pain. Larger doses can lead to death.
Holly berries grown on tree-like shrubs that have stiff, thick and pointy green leaves. The berries look hard, similar to cranberries, and they grow in bunches along stalks that shoot out from the branches. All it takes eating three of these berries to experience severe nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue and diarrhea.
The berries from the juniper tree are considered potentially-poisonous because some people have reported becoming ill after consuming large quantities. The berries have a light blue-purple color to them, similar to blueberries, and they grow in bunches that sort of resemble bunches of grapes. Abdominal cramping and diarrhea are common symptoms, and large doses have been known to cause alterations to our DNA, kidney damage and convulsions.
It’s important to note that not all juniper berries are poisonous, and only a few species pose a threat. In fact, many people use juniper berries as remedies for a number of ailments in small doses as well. Do a little bit of research to determine whether or not the berries that are in your area are healthy or not.
Pokeweed grows in bunches of small berries that resemble raspberries or mulberries. They also have similar colors as their non-harmful counterparts as well. They are found on plants that can grow to around five feet tall, and their stems are thick and green. They change color as they ripen from white to purple, and their juices will stain the hands if the berries are crushed.
Symptoms of poisoning include severe headache, vomiting, nausea, severe vomiting and diarrhea. It only takes about 10 berries for symptoms to develop in adults. Keep in mind that the stems and leaves of the pokeweed plant are also used for herbal remedies as a way to induce vomiting after ingesting other toxic substances.
American bittersweet berries are yellow, round and almost look like little lemons, but they can also be orange or have a copper color to them as well. They grow in bunches along a vine-like plant and are very common in landscaping and decorations, especially during the fall months. Symptoms generally involve severe cramping along the digestive system and occasional nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. However, these berries are very toxic to pets, particularly dogs, and you may want to ensure that the area is clear of this plant before letting your pet run free.
Cotoneaster berries are round, hard and red with little fibrous stars on the bottom. They are found in dense clusters on an evergreen shrub that tends to grow vertically instead of spreading out like a bush. They can reach heights of up to 25 feet. Ingesting berries can cause a range of health problems including liver, heart, kidney and brain damage. Some compounds in the berries are converted to cyanide during digestion, and large quantities can be fatal or leave permanent damage.
Snow berries grow into beautiful white or light purple round balls on shrubs that are bushy, usually have white flowers and grow in bunches. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Fortunately, their level of toxicity is relatively low, and you will probably need to eat quite a bit before developing symptoms.
Keep in mind that a lot of factors go into the development and severity of symptoms. Children and pets are more at risk due to their small size, but anyone can have a serious reaction to these and other berries based on their physiology. Make sure that you take a berry identification chart or become familiar with what berries are available in the area that you will be spending your time. This will help you to avoid eating the wrong ones while enjoying those that are not harmful.
Do You Qualify for a First Aid Merit Badge?
One of the most important skills that any of us can possess is being able to render appropriate and timely first aid during a crisis. One way to test your abilities is to compare what you know with the requirements necessary to earn a scouting first aid merit badge. While this may sound like kids stuff, the skills scouts need to demonstrate are surprisingly challenging and comprehensive.
Not only that, but they are adapted to different types of scenarios that pertain to what any one of us may encounter in the field. Let’s take a closer look at what scouts need to achieve in order to get the badge, because we can learn a lot from following their example.
Calling for Help
The first on the list is how to call for help during an emergency. However, there’s a twist. Scouts are asked to know what to do if they are at home or in a familiar place. Then they are asked to come up with a plan to get help while in the wilderness or on an expedition as well as while in the water. Take a moment and think of the difficulties associated with these scenarios, and it’s easy to see how challenging it would be to come up with a plan. Could you pull it off if you were faced with one of these situations right now?
Not only are scouts expected to recognize the signs and symptoms of life-threatening conditions such as cardiac or respiratory arrest, choking or shock, but they are expected to know how to react. Scouts are also expected to learn how to triage and assess patients when multiple people are sick or injured until help arrives. Imagine being at the scene of a mass-casualty situation and having to make an assessment, establish some kind of order and tend to patients while you may also be scared or injured as well. Are you ready to face that challenge?
Not only scouts expected to manage the situation, they are also expected to know how to intervene when appropriate. This involves assembling a comprehensive first aid kit and knowing how to use it, learning to operate an AED or automated defibrillator and protecting themselves from pathogens found in the victims blood or bodily fluids. This is pretty heavy stuff for kids and adolescents to learn, yet these are the skills that are required in order to earn a merit badge.
Other things that scouts need to demonstrate include how to build an improvised stretcher, move unconscious patients and transport them to safety under less-than-ideal conditions. Additionally, scouts need to recognize things like allergic reactions to insect bites, how to identify signs of broken bones, and what to do when someone is hypothermic or suffering from heat stroke.
These are just a few random examples of the many skills that a scout will develop as they earn a first aid merit badge. The point we’re trying to make is that there is a lot of work involved with becoming equipped to handle a wide-range of medical emergencies at home as well as in the field. Always remember that first aid is only useful if someone knows how to apply those skills and techniques.
Take the merit badge challenge to see how you measure up in terms of your real ability to handle a medical emergency during a crisis. Chances are that the results will surprise and motivate you to develop your own skill set.